1) Information on the Collection of Personal Data and Contact Details of the Controller
1.1 We are pleased that you are visiting our website and thank you for your interest. On the following pages, we inform you about the handling of your personal data when using our website. Personal data is all data with which you can be personally identified.
1.2 The controller in charge of data processing on this website, within the meaning of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), is "Nostraforma Verwaltungs GmbH, Bodenseestr. 129, 81243 München, +49 89 8208062-0, firstname.lastname@example.org". The controller in charge of the processing of personal data is the natural or legal person who alone or jointly with others determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data.
1.3 The controller has designated a data protection officer for this website. He can be reached as follows: "Rechtsanwalt Dr. Sebastian Kraska, Marienplatz 2, 80331 München, Tel.: +49 (0)89 1891 7360 E-Mail: email@example.com"
1.4 This website uses SSL or TLS encryption for security reasons and to protect the transmission of personal data and other confidential content (e.g. orders or inquiries to the controller). You can recognize an encrypted connection by the character string https:// and the lock symbol in your browser line.
2) Data Collection When You Visit Our Website
When using our website for information only, i.e. if you do not register or otherwise provide us with information, we only collect data that your browser transmits to our server (so-called "server log files"). When you visit our website, we collect the following data that is technically necessary for us to display the website to you:
- Our visited website
- Date and time at the moment of access
- Amount of data sent in bytes
- Source/reference from which you came to the page
- Browser used
- Operating system used
- IP address used (if applicable: in anonymized form)
Data processing is carried out in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR on the basis of our legitimate interest in improving the stability and functionality of our website. The data will not be passed on or used in any other way. However, we reserve the right to check the server log files subsequently, if there are any concrete indications of illegal use.
In order to make your visit to our website attractive and to enable the use of certain functions, we use so-called cookies on various pages. These are small text files that are stored on your end device. Some of the cookies we use are deleted after the end of the browser session, i.e. after closing your browser (so-called session cookies). Other cookies remain on your terminal and enable us or our partner companies (third-party cookies) to recognize your browser on your next visit (persistent cookies). If cookies are set, they collect and process specific user information such as browser and location data as well as IP address values according to individual requirements. Persistent cookies are automatically deleted after a specified period, which may vary depending on the cookie.
In some cases, cookies are used to simplify the ordering process by saving settings (e.g. remembering the content of a virtual shopping basket for a later visit to the website). If personal data are also processed by individual cookies set by us, the processing is carried out in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR either for the execution of the contract or in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR to safeguard our legitimate interests in the best possible functionality of the website and a customer-friendly and effective design of the page visit.
We work together with advertising partners who help us to make our website more interesting for you. For this purpose, cookies from partner companies are also stored on your hard drive when you visit our website (third-party cookies). You will be informed individually and separately about the use of such cookies and the scope of the information collected in each case within the following sections.
Please note that you can set your browser in such a way that you are informed about the setting of cookies and you can decide individually about their acceptance or exclude the acceptance of cookies for certain cases or generally. Each browser differs in the way it manages the cookie settings. This is described in the help menu of each browser, which explains how you can change your cookie settings. You will find these for the respective browsers under the following links:
- Internet Explorer: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/17442/windows-internet-explorer-delete-manage-cookies
- Firefox: https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/privacy/websites/#cookies
- Chrome: https://support.google.com/accounts/answer/61416?co=GENIE.Platform%3DDesktop&hl=en
- Safari: https://support.apple.com/en-gb/guide/safari/manage-cookies-and-website-data-sfri11471/mac
- Opera: https://help.opera.com/en/latest/web-preferences/#cookies
Please note that the functionality of our website may be limited if cookies are not accepted.
4) Contacting Us
When you contact us (e.g. via contact form or e-mail), personal data is collected. Which data is collected in the case of a contact form can be seen from the respective contact form. This data is stored and used exclusively for the purpose of responding to your request or for establishing contact and for the associated technical administration. The legal basis for processing data is our legitimate interest in responding to your request in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR. If your contact is aimed at concluding a contract, the additional legal basis for the processing is Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR. Your data will be deleted after final processing of your enquiry; this is the case if it can be inferred from the circumstances that the facts in question have been finally clarified, provided there are no legal storage obligations to the contrary.
5) Data Processing When Opening a Customer Account and for Contract Processing
Pursuant to Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR, personal data will continue to be collected and processed if you provide it to us for the execution of a contract or when opening a customer account. Which data is collected can be seen from the respective input forms. It is possible to delete your customer account at any time. This can be done by sending a message to the above-mentioned address of the controller. We store and use the data provided by you for contract processing. After complete processing of the contract or deletion of your customer account, your data will be blocked in consideration of tax and commercial retention periods and deleted after expiry of these periods, unless you have expressly consented to further use of your data or a legally permitted further use of data has been reserved by our site, about which we will inform you accordingly below.
6) Use of Your Data for Direct Advertising
6.1 If you subscribe to our e-mail newsletter, we will send you regular information about our offers. The only mandatory information for sending the newsletter is your e-mail address. The indication of additional possible data is voluntary and is used to allow us to address you personally. We use the so-called double opt-in procedure for sending newsletters. This means that we will not send you an e-mail newsletter, unless you have expressly confirmed to us that you agree to the sending of such a newsletter. We will then send you a confirmation e-mail asking you to confirm that you wish to receive future newsletters by clicking on an appropriate link.
By activating the confirmation link, you give us your consent to the use of your personal data in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR. When you register for the newsletter, we store your IP address entered by the Internet Service Provider (ISP) as well as the date and time of registration so that we can trace any possible misuse of your e-mail address at a later time. The data collected by us when you register for the newsletter will be used exclusively for the purpose of advertising by means of the newsletter. You can unsubscribe from the newsletter at any time via the link provided in the newsletter or by sending a message to the responsible person named above. After your cancellation, your e-mail address will immediately be deleted from our newsletter distribution list, unless you have expressly consented to further use of your data or we reserve the right to use data in excess thereof, which is permitted by law and about which we inform you in this declaration.
6.2 Newsletter dispatch via CleverReach
Our e-mail newsletter is sent by the technical service provider CleverReach GmbH & Co. KG, Mühlenstr. 43, 26180 Rastede ("CleverReach"), to which we pass on your data provided during the newsletter registration. This disclosure is made in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR and serves our legitimate interest in the use of an effective, secure and user-friendly newsletter system. The data you enter for newsletter subscription (e.g. e-mail address) will be stored on CleverReach's servers in Germany and Ireland.
CleverReach uses this information to send and statistically evaluate newsletters on our behalf. For evaluation purposes, the e-mails sent contain so-called web beacons or tracking pixels, which represent single-pixel image files stored on our website. This allows us to determine whether a newsletter message has been opened and which links have been clicked on. With the help of the so-called conversion tracking, it can also be determined whether a pre-defined action (e.g. purchase of a product on our website) has taken place after clicking on the link in the newsletter. In addition, technical information is recorded (e.g. time of retrieval, IP address, browser type and operating system). The data is exclusively collected in a pseudonymized format and is not linked with your other personal data, preventing you from being identified. This data is exclusively used for statistical analysis of newsletter campaigns. The results of these analyses can be used to better adapt future newsletters to the interests of the recipients.
If you wish to object to the data analysis for statistical evaluation purposes, you must unsubscribe from the newsletter.
We have concluded an order processing agreement with CleverReach obliging CleverReach to protect our customers' data and not to pass it on to third parties.
You can read more about CleverReach's data analysis at: https://www.cleverreach.com/en/features/reporting-tracking/
7) Processing of Data for the Purpose of Order Handling
7.1 The personal data collected by us will be passed on to the transport company commissioned with the delivery within the scope of contract processing, insofar as this is necessary for the delivery of the goods. We will pass on your payment data to the commissioned credit institution within the framework of payment processing, if this is necessary for payment handling. If payment service providers are used, we explicitly inform you of this below. The legal basis for the transfer of data is Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR.
7.2 Passing on Personal Data to Shipping Service Providers
If delivery of goods takes place by the transport service provider DHL (Deutsche Post AG, Charles-de-Gaulle-Straße 20, 53113 Bonn), we will pass on your e-mail address to DHL in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR, prior to delivery of the goods, for the purpose of coordinating a date of delivery or of a notice about the shipment status, only if you have given your express consent during the ordering process. Otherwise, only the name of the recipient and the delivery address will be passed on to DHL for the purpose of delivery in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR. The data will only be passed on if this is necessary for the delivery of the goods. In this case, prior agreement on the delivery date with DHL or transmission of status information for shipment delivery is not possible.
The consent can be revoked for future deliveries at any time, either with the controller or with the transport service provider DHL.
If delivery of goods takes place by the transport service provider FedEx (FedEx Express Germany GmbH, Langer Kornweg 34 k,65451 Kelsterbach)), we will pass on your e-mail address to FedEx in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR, prior to delivery of the goods, for the purpose of coordinating a date of delivery or of a notice about the shipment status, only if you have given your express consent during the ordering process. Otherwise, only the name of the recipient and the delivery address will be passed on to FedEx for the purpose of delivery in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR. The data will only be passed on if this is necessary for the delivery of the goods. In this case, prior agreement on the delivery date with FedEx or transmission of status information for shipment delivery is not possible.
The consent can be revoked for future deliveries at any time, either with the controller or with the transport service provider FedEx.
If delivery of goods takes place by the transport service UPS (United Parcel Service Deutschland Inc. & Co. OHG, Görlitzer Straße 1, 41460 Neuss), we will pass on your e-mail address to UPS in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR, prior to delivery of the goods, for the purpose of coordinating a date of delivery or of a notice about the shipment status, if you have given your express consent during the ordering process. Otherwise, only the name of the recipient and the delivery address will be passed on to UPS for the purpose of delivery in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR. The data will only be passed on if this is necessary for the delivery of the goods. In this case, prior agreement on the delivery date with UPS or transmission of status information for shipment delivery is not possible.
The consent can be revoked for future deliveries at any time, either with the controller or with the transport service provider UPS.
7.3 Use of Payment Service Providers
- BS PAYONE
If you decide on a payment method of the payment service provider BS PAYONE, payment is processed by the payment service provider BS PAYONE GmbH, Lyoner Straße 9, 60528 Frankfurt/Main, to whom we pass on your information provided during the order process together with the information about your order in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR. Your data will only be passed on for the purpose of payment processing with the payment service provider PAYONE and only to the extent necessary.
When you pay via PayPal, credit card via PayPal, direct debit via PayPal or - if offered - "purchase on account" or "payment by instalments" via PayPal, we transmit your payment data to PayPal (Europe) S.a.r.l. et Cie, S.C.A., 22-24 Boulevard Royal, L-2449 Luxembourg (hereinafter "PayPal"). The transfer takes place in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR and only insofar as this is necessary for payment processing.
PayPal reserves the right to carry out credit checks for the payment methods credit card via PayPal, direct debit via PayPal or, if offered, "purchase on account" or "payment by installments" via PayPal. For this purpose, your payment data may be passed on to credit agencies on the basis of PayPal's legitimate interest in determining your solvency pursuant to Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR. PayPal uses the result of the credit assessment in relation to the statistical probability of non-payment for the purpose of deciding on the provision of the respective payment method. The credit report can contain probability values (so-called score values). If score values are included in the result of the credit report, they are based on recognized scientific, mathematical-statistical methods. The calculation of the score values includes, but is not limited to, address data. For further information on data protection law, including the credit agencies used, please refer to PayPal's data protection declaration at: https://www.paypal.com/uk/webapps/mpp/ua/privacy-full.
You can object to this processing of your data at any time by sending a message to PayPal. However, PayPal may still be entitled to process your personal data if this is necessary for contractual payment processing.
8) Contact for Requesting Customer Rating Information
Our Own Evaluation Reminder (No Dispatch by a Customer Evaluation System)
We use your e-mail address as a one-off reminder for submitting an evaluation of your order using our own evaluation system, provided you have given us your express consent during or after placing your order in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR. You can revoke your consent at any time by sending a message to the controller responsible for data processing.
Evaluation Reminder by Trusted Shops
If you have given us your express consent during or after your order in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR, we will send your e-mail address to the evaluation platform "Trusted Shops GmbH" , Subbelrather Str. 15c, 50823 Köln (www.trustedshops.it), so that it can send you an evaluation reminder by e-mail. You can revoke your consent at any time by sending a message to the controller responsible for data processing or to the evaluation platform.
9) Web Analysis Services
Google (Universal) Analytics
Google (Universal) Analytics
This website uses Google (Universal) Analytics, a web analysis service operated by Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, 4 Barrow St, Dublin, D04 ESW5, Ireland ("Google"). Google (Universal) Analytics uses so-called cookies, which are text files stored on your computer, to help the website analyse how users use the site. The information generated by the cookies about your use of this website (including the shortened IP address) is generally transmitted to a Google server and stored there. When using Google (Universal) Analytics, personal data may also be transmitted to the servers of Google LLC. in the USA.
This website uses Google (Universal) Analytics exclusively with the extension "_anonymizeIp()", which ensures an anonymization of the IP address by shortening it and excludes a direct personal relationship. As a result of the extension, your IP address will previously be shortened by Google within member states of the European Union or in other signatory states to the Agreement on the European Economic Area. Only in exceptional cases will the full IP address be transmitted to a Google server in the USA and shortened there. In these exceptional cases, processing is carried out in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR, on the basis of our legitimate interest in the statistical analysis of user behaviour for optimization and marketing purposes.
On our behalf, Google will use this information to evaluate your use of the website, to compile reports on website activity and to provide us with other services relating to website and internet use. The IP address transmitted by your browser in the context of Google (Universal) Analytics is not merged with other Google data.
As an alternative to the browser plug-in or for browsers on mobile devices, please click on the following link in order to set an opt-out cookie which disables Google Analytics to collect data on this website in the future (This opt-out cookie only functions for this browser and this domain. If you delete your cookies on this browser, you must click again on this link):
Disable Google Analytics
Further information about Google (Universal) Analytics can be found here: https://policies.google.com/privacy?hl=en&gl=de
In the event that personal data is transferred to Google LLC. based in the United States, Google LLC. is certified for the US-European data protection agreement "Privacy Shield", which guarantees compliance with the data protection level applicable in the EU. An up-to-date certificate can be viewed here: https://www.privacyshield.gov/list.
To the extent required by law, we have obtained your consent to the processing of your data as described in accordance with Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR. You can withdraw your consent at any time with effect for the future. In order to exercise your right of withdrawal, please follow the procedure described above.
10) Tools and Miscellaneous
10.1 Google Customer Reviews (formerly Google Certified Dealer Program)
We cooperate with Google LLC in the framework of the "Google Customer Reviews" program. The provider is Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, 4 Barrow St, Dublin, D04 E5W5, Ireland ("Google"). The program offers us the opportunity to obtain customer reviews from users of our website. After making a purchase on our website, you will be asked whether you would like to participate in a Google e-mail survey. If you give your consent pursuant to Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR, we transmit your e-mail address to Google. You will receive an email from Google Customer Reviews asking you to rate the shopping experience on our site. The feedback you provide will then be combined with our other reviews and displayed in our Google Customer Reviews logo and Merchant Center dashboard and will also be used for Google seller reviews. When using Google Customer Reviews, personal data may also be transmitted to the servers of Google LLC. in the USA.
You can revoke your consent at any time by sending a message to the controller responsible for data processing or to Google.
In the event that personal data is transferred to Google LLC. based in the United States, Google LLC. isIs certified for the US-European data protection agreement "Privacy Shield", which guarantees compliance with the data protection level applicable in the EU. An up-to-date certificate can be viewed here: https://www.privacyshield.gov/list.
For more information about Google's privacy practices with Google Customer Reviews, please visit https://support.google.com/merchants/?hl=en-GB#topic=7259123
For more information about Google Seller Ratings' privacy practices, visit this link: https://support.google.com/adwords/answer/2375474
10.2 Google Maps
Our website uses Google Maps (AP’I) of Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, 4 Barrow St, Dublin, D04 E5W5, Ireland (“Google”). Google Maps is a web service for displaying interactive (country) maps in order to display geographical information visually. Using this service will show you our location and will make it easier for you to find us.
When you access the sub-pages that contain the Google Maps map, information about your use of our website (such as your IP address) is transmitted to and stored by Google on servers. When using Google Maps, personal data may also be transmitted to the servers of Google LLC. in the USA. This is regardless of whether Google provides a user account that you are logged in with or whether no user account exists. If you are logged in to Google, your information will be directly associated with your account. If you do not wish to be associated with your profile on Google, you must log out before activating the button. Google saves your data (even for users who are not logged in) as usage profiles and evaluates them. Such an evaluation takes place according to Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR, on the basis of the legitimate interests of Google in the insertion of personalized advertising, market research and/or demand-oriented design of its website. You have the right to object to the creation of these user profiles. If you want to do so, you must contact Google to exercise this right.
In the event that personal data is transferred to Google LLC. based in the United States, Google LLC. is Is certified for the US-European data protection agreement "Privacy Shield", which guarantees compliance with the data protection level applicable in the EU. An up-to-date certificate can be viewed here: https://www.privacyshield.gov/list.
10.3 Applications for job advertisements by e-mail
On our website, we advertise current vacancies in a separate section, for which interested parties can apply by e-mail using the contact address provided.
If applicants want to be included in the application process, they must provide us with all personal details required for a well-founded and informed assessment and selection in conjunction with their application by e-mail.
The required data should include general personal information (name, address, telephone or electronic contact) as well as performance-specific evidence showing the qualifications required for the advertised position. In addition, health-related information may be required, which in the interest of social protection must be given special attention to regarding the applicant's person according to labor and social law.
The components an application must contain to be considered and the form in which these components must be sent by e-mail can be found in the respective job advertisement.
After receipt of the application sent using the e-mail contact address supplied, the applicant data will be stored by us and evaluated exclusively for the purpose of processing the application. In the event of queries arising in the course of processing the application, we will use either the e-mail address supplied by the applicant with his application or a telephone number supplied, at our discretion.
The legal basis for such processing, including the contacting of applicants for queries, is basically Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR in conjunction with Art. 26 (1) Federal Data Protection Act. According to these provisions, the completion of the application procedure is deemed to be the initiation of an employment contract.
If special categories of personal data within the meaning of Art. 9 (1) GDPR (e.g. health data such as information on severely disabled status) are requested from applicants as part of the application procedure, processing will take place in accordance with Art. 9 (2) point b GDPR, so as to enable us to exercise the rights arising from labor law, social security and social protection law and to fulfil our obligations in this regard.
The processing of special categories of data may also be based cumulatively or alternatively on Art. 9 (1) point h GDPR if it is used for the purposes of health care or occupational medicine, for the assessment of the applicant's ability to work, for medical diagnostics, health or social care or for the management of systems and services in the health or social sector.
If, in the course of the evaluation described above, the applicant is not selected or if an applicant withdraws his application prematurely, his data transmitted by e-mail as well as all electronic correspondence including the original application e-mail will be deleted at the latest after 6 months following a corresponding notification. This period shall be determined on the basis of our legitimate interest in being able to answer any follow-up questions regarding the application and, if necessary, to comply with our obligation to provide evidence under the regulations governing the equal treatment of applicants.
In the event of a successful application, the data provided will be processed on the basis of Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR in conjunction with Art. 26 (2) Federal Data Protection Act for the purposes of implementing the employment relationship.
10.4 Trusted Shops Trustbadge
The Trusted Shops Trustbadge is included on this website to display our Trusted Shops seal of approval and to offer Trusted Shops membership to buyers after placing an order.
In this way, our legitimate interests in an optimal marketing of our offer are protected, within the meaning of Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR. The Trustbadge and the services advertised with it are a service of Trusted Shops GmbH, Subbelrather Str. 15C, 50823 Cologne.
When the trust badge is called up, the web server automatically stores a so-called server log file, which contains e.g. your IP address, date and time of the call, transferred data volume, the requesting provider (access data), and it documents the call. This access data is not evaluated and is automatically overwritten at the latest seven days after the end of your page visit.
Further personal data will only be transferred to Trusted Shops if you decide to use Trusted Shops products after completing an order or if you have already registered for use. In this case, the contractual agreement between you and Trusted Shops applies.
11) Rights of the Data Subject
11.1 The applicable data protection law grants you the following comprehensive rights of data subjects (rights of information and intervention) vis-à-vis the data controller with regard to the processing of your personal data:
- Right of access by the data subject pursuant to Art. 15 GDPR
- Right to rectification pursuant to Art. 16 GDPR
- Right to erase (“right to be forgotten”) pursuant to Art. 17 GDPR
- Right to restriction of processing pursuant to Art. 18 GDPR
- Right to be informed pursuant to Art. 19 GDPR
- Right to data portability pursuant to Art. 20 GDPR
- Right to withdraw a given consent pursuant to Art. 7 (3) GDPR
- Right to lodge a complaint pursuant to Art. 77 GDPR
11.2 RIGHT TO OBJECT
IF, WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF A CONSIDERATION OF INTERESTS, WE PROCESS YOUR PERSONAL DATA ON THE BASIS OF OUR PREDOMINANT LEGITIMATE INTEREST, YOU HAVE THE RIGHT AT ANY TIME TO OBJECT TO THIS PROCESSING WITH EFFECT FOR THE FUTURE ON THE GROUNDS THAT ARISE FROM YOUR PARTICULAR SITUATION.
IF YOU EXERCISE YOUR RIGHT TO OBJECT, WE WILL STOP PROCESSING THE DATA CONCERNED. HOWEVER, WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO FURTHER PROCESSING IF WE CAN PROVE COMPELLING REASONS WORTHY OF PROTECTION FOR PROCESSING WHICH OUTWEIGH YOUR INTERESTS, FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS, OR IF THE PROCESSING SERVES TO ASSERT, EXERCISE OR DEFEND LEGAL CLAIMS.
IF WE PROCESS YOUR PERSONAL DATA FOR DIRECT MARKETING PURPOSES, YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO OBJECT AT ANY TIME TO THE PROCESSING OF YOUR PERSONAL DATA WHICH ARE USED FOR DIRECT MARKETING PURPOSES. YOU MAY EXERCISE THE OBJECTION AS DESCRIBED ABOVE.
IF YOU EXERCISE YOUR RIGHT TO OBJECT, WE WILL STOP PROCESSING THE DATA CONCERNED FOR DIRECT ADVERTISING PURPOSES.
12) Duration of Storage of Personal Data
The duration of the storage of personal data is based on the respective legal basis, the purpose of processing and - if relevant – on the respective legal retention period (e.g. commercial and tax retention periods).
If personal data is processed on the basis of an express consent pursuant to Art. 6 (1) point a GDPR, this data is stored until the data subject revokes his consent.
If there are legal storage periods for data that is processed within the framework of legal or similar obligations on the basis of Art. 6 (1) point b GDPR, this data will be routinely deleted after expiry of the storage periods if it is no longer necessary for the fulfillment of the contract or the initiation of the contract and/or if we no longer have a justified interest in further storage.
When processing personal data on the basis of Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR, this data is stored until the data subject exercises his right of objection in accordance with Art. 21 (1) GDPR, unless we can provide compelling grounds for processing worthy of protection which outweigh the interests, rights and freedoms of the data subject, or the processing serves to assert, exercise or defend legal claims.
If personal data is processed for the purpose of direct marketing on the basis of Art. 6 (1) point f GDPR, this data is stored until the data subject exercises his right of objection pursuant to Art. 21 (2) GDPR.
Unless otherwise stated in the information contained in this declaration on specific processing situations, stored personal data will be deleted if it is no longer necessary for the purposes for which it was collected or otherwise processed.